Climate / Soils / Hydrography
The Măcin Mountains National Park lies within temperate-continental climate, with arid influences owed to eastern air current circulation. The Măcin Mountains are situated in a pronounced continental climate, with sub-Mediterranean influences in the higher areas and with obvious steppe characteristics in the South of the protected area. The climate includes very hot and dry summers, long and dry autumns and freezing winters with very little snow. The average annual temperatures are 10-11°C with average precipitation amounts which do not go beyond 500 mm, thus fitting into the extreme temperatures and precipitation areas of Romania. They are the country's driest mountains. Vegetation conditions are most valuable in the Northern and Central area of the park, where precipitation is abundant and the area has a forest character, being lower in the SE, where there is a steppe region. Frequent winds blow from the N and NE, without producing massive tree felling.
Due to special physical-geographic conditions, especially the diversity of the climate of the geological sub-layer, relief and vegetation, the Măcin Mountains stand out presenting a great variety of soils. The soils of the park fall into the Mollisols (34%) and Cambisols (66%). The repartition of soils is tightly connected to climate and vegetation, but also to the lithologic structure.
The hydrographic network is characterized by rainwater supply, small rivers and small debits. Luncaviţa and Jijila Valleys have evolved on synclinal lines, while part of Taiţa Valley was formed on a fault line. They are part of the Dobrogean rivers, being short. Because they are rainwater supplied (in a very small measure due to snow or groundwater), the rivers show a great flow variation, which is a consequence of climatic continentalism. The watercourses fit both the basin of the Danube (the rivers Jijila, Luncaviţa, Cerna, Somiac), and of the Black Sea (Taiţa river). Because of the arid climate, the flow of the rivers is reduced, most of them having a temporary character. During rainy periods, especially during the spring, on the rocky valley temporary waterfalls are formed.